Thursday, June 19, 2014

Why Batman do not kill the Joker

Over the decades from their initial encounter in Gotham City, the Joker has transformed from the Clown Prince of Crime to a mass murderer. He killed the second Robin, Jason Todd, paralysed Barbara Gordon (Batgirl), and shot and killed Lt. Sarah Essen, Commissioner Gordon's second wife. As many times, the Batman captured the Joker, as many times the Joker escaped. Being insane, Batman knew the Joker will never be persecuted. Knowing as he did that the Joker will continue to escape and hurt and kill people, why did the Batman not kill the Joker?

Batman has said many times that he refused to kill because in killing, he is no better than the criminals that he is sworn to fight. But, the Joker? Come on, man.

I have been trying to understand Batman's reluctance to kill and I come across this system of ethics named utilitarianism. This system will say, Batman kill the Joker because this will prevent all the murders he will commit in the future. While it is bad to kill, yet killing one life will be the saviour of many other lives.

Philosopher Philippa Foot and Judith Jarvis Thomson put forth the issue in form of a moral dilemma:
Imagine that a trolley is going down a track. Further down the track are five people who do not hear the trolley and will not be able to get out of the way. Unfortunately, there aren't enough time to stop the trolley before it hits and kills them. The only way to avoid killing these five people is to switch the trolley to another track. But, unfortunately, there is one person standing on that track, also too close for the trolley to stop before killing him. Now imagine an innocent bystander standing by the track switch who must make a choice; do nothing, which leads to the death of five people on the current track, or act to divert the trolley to the other track, which leads to the death of the single person.
The Batman is in the place of the bystander. He is holding the Joker's hands at the top of an unfinished office in the movie The Dark Knight. All he has to do is to let go and let the Joker fall to his death. Imagine the trolley scenario except the current track is onto the one person and switching the track will kill the five.
Do you think the Batman should kill the Joker?

Philosopher Thomson now suggest another scenario

There is a surgeon with five patients. Each of his patients is dying from failure of a different organ and could be saved by a transplant. Since there are no organs available by normal channels, the surgeon considers drugging one of his (healthy) colleague and removing his organs to use for transplants. 
By killing one, many will be saved. This is utilitarianism. This is similar to the trolley story. The death of one will save the five. Or is it? Do you agree? Is the choice of allowing the trolley kill one person the same as killing another person for his organs?

Do you think Batman should kill the Joker?

It would have been so easy for the Batman to kill the Joker. Batman is an expert exponent of many types of martial arts.

The philosophical system of utilitarianism will have not problem with Batman killing the Joker to prevent Joker from committing further crimes. As we have seen from our earlier posts about the trolley and the surgeon, it is not as straight forward as it seems.

In the Hush storyline, Hush asked the Batman, "How many lives do you think you've cost, how many families have you ruined, by allowing the Joker to live?...And why? Because of your duty? Your sense of justice?"
In utilitarianism, the end justifies the means. A popular proponent of utilitarianism is Peter Singer, professor of Philosophy in Princeton University and in the University of Melbourne.

However, there is another system of philosophy named deontology (nothing to do with dentists) in which the act is more important. When you decide "do not kill", it means do not kill under any circumstances, irrespective of whatever good that killing may produce. Deontology is based on a sense of duty and the most well known proponent is Immanuel Kant. Of course, Immanuel Kant have never met the Joker.

"Is Batty a secret deontologist?" muses the Joker.
"I want my lawyer! Oh, that's right, I killed him too" (from The Dark Knight)

In our consideration of why Batman did not kill the Joker when he have had so many opportunities to do so, it is obvious that he is not a follower of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism takes into consideration that the death of the Joker will save many people in DC comic universe.

While it may appear that Batman is a deontologist; that the act of killing is against his sense of duty to be not like the criminals he fights, however, his other actions do not support the conjecture. Batman as a masked vigilante is dangerously skirting the edge of the law and have been known to break the law when it suits his purpose. His Kantian ethics will not allow him to do this if he is a deontologist.

There is another system of ethics which come down to us from Aristotle, the great philosopher himself. Named virtue ethics, Aristotle postulated that the ethical behaviour of a person is not from his choice (utilitarianism), or his actions/duty (deontologism). It arises from who this person is. He calls these virtues or what we nowadays call character; compassion, justice, courage, and tolerance. One of the great virtue philosophers alive today is Alistair MacIntyre. There has been much talk of character/virtues in leadership especially political and religious leadership. Unfortunately these talks are of character/virtue flaws than of good strong character with integrity.

Does Batman has such good virtues that he is incapable of killing the Joker, no matter how much he wants to?

Our investigation into the existential question should Batman kill the Joker? has evolved to why the Batman did not kill the Joker.

We have established that Batman does not subscribe to utilitarianism and Kantianism (odeontologism). That left us to consider virtue moral theory. While unilitaianism focus on the consequences of the action, odeontologism on the duty of actor, virtue theory is about who the actor is, i.e. the character or virtues of the actor.

Batman/Bruce Wayne has very strong influential persons in his life. His father, Dr Thomas Wayne is a compassionate surgeon, industrialist and philantrophist. He believed in the goodness of people. Note that he organises the rich elite to help the poor during the depression in Gotham City and built the monorail system for the people. His death was partially due to the fact that he brought his family to the opera by monorail instead of by private car (see Batman Begins).

The butler Alfred was another influence and served as a surrogate father figure after the death of Thomas Wayne. Alfred exhibits strong elements of loyalty and integrity, looking after the family estates when Bruce was wandering around in search of himself. Though he disapprove of Bruce's nocturnal activities, he restrict himself to sarcastic remarks while availing himself to rescue the Batman and offer medical treatment when necessary. It takes a strong character not to impose his will on others and to remind in the shadow of another.

Dr. Thompson is another who helped Bruce after the death of his parents. She provide the nurturing mother figure to balance Alfred's Yang with her Yin. A competent doctor, she chooses to devote her life to helping the poor and the helpless in slum alley.

Thomas Wayne, Alfred and Thompson did not act out of a sense of duty but because of who they are. It is their characters that dictate their actions, not the other way around. Bruce Wayne must have pick up this moral theory from them. In the storyline, Bruce Wayne:Fugitive, Bruce Wayne has an identity crisis. Is he the Batman and Bruce the man behind the mask or Bruce Wayne and the Batman is the person behind the persona? As expected, the crisis was resolved when Bruce realise that the Batman was a means to an end (limiting the activities of the criminal elements by putting a fear in the criminal mind). This question resurfaced numerous times, for example in the story arch of No Man's Land and Knightfall (and Knightend).

Batman does not kill the Joker because it is not in his nature or character to kill. Like Gandhi who resort to non-violence to resist an unjustice government, the Batman resort to non-lethal violence to resist a corrupt justice system and the criminal minds. It is in their strength of character that we must respect him.

previous posted at


Tuesday, November 26, 2013

The Storm

The Storm

Reflections before Advent 2014
The storm crashed into a heart filled with pain,
tons of water flattening the dead and maimed,
waters that save will also destroy.
The eddy current in the heart causes consternation,
what to do, what to do, cries with aggravation,
clear clean water now murky and dark.
The storm smashes innocence and let in darkness,
tears mixes with salt water, colour into blackness,
on a face lined with despair.
Gale force wind chill into a soul’s grounds,
sputtering and gasping as one drowns,
watches in despair as the ship goes down.
The storm blows on, and the year wears on,
come month’s end and Advent’s dawn,
will the portal opens for homecoming?
Living waters from the wellspring of one’s core,
will you offers satiation to the thirsty once more?
and destroy the beast that ambles toward Jerusalem.


Monday, September 09, 2013

S.T.O.C.K. Prayers

Unwavering: Praying Dependent Prayers Consistently

Praying is breathing. As air is necessary to the wellbeing of the physical body, praying is to the spiritual body. We are born breathing air and our spiritual beings are created to pray. Prayer is intrinsic to our makeup as we are created creatures that find their completeness in their Creator. Children are born able to pray but somehow lose this ability as the rational part of their brains developed. We, who are not longer children, have to relearn this intrinsic and essential skill.
Praying is as natural as breathing. Praying is the act of being in communion with God. Unfortunately over the ages religious authorities, teachings and traditions have made this most natural of activity, unnatural. We have been taught that prayer is an action we have to perform at certain times, in a certain way, using certain formulas so that what we do becomes what is commonly known as ‘prayers’. To some prayers may be what happens when a priest or pastor pray aloud at the altar in front of a church during Sunday services. To others, are the images of Jesus agonizing in prayer at Gethsemane with sweat and tears of blood. To yet others, it is a part of certain time named ‘quiet time’ which is all but quiet as they verbalize a list of requests or petitions to the Almighty. All this require effort and discipline on our part to perform these types of prayers. It is no longer like breathing where we breathe without thinking. This may be one of the reasons why prayer is the most talked about spiritual activity, affirmed to be essential, yet hardly ever practiced if we are honest about our spiritual life.
There is never fear that our prayers will not be heard or rejected. Jesus gives us an excellent illustration and commentary concerning this in Luke 11:5-13:
LK 11:5 Then he said to them, "Suppose one of you has a friend, and he goes to him at midnight and says, `Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, 6 because a friend of mine on a journey has come to me, and I have nothing to set before him.'
    LK 11:7 "Then the one inside answers, `Don't bother me. The door is already locked, and my children are with me in bed. I can't get up and give you anything.' 8 I tell you, though he will not get up and give him the bread because he is his friend, yet because of the man's boldness he will get up and give him as much as he needs.
    LK 11:9 "So I say to you: Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you. 10 For everyone who asks receives; he who seeks finds; and to him who knocks, the door will be opened.
    LK 11:11 "Which of you fathers, if your son asks for a fish, will give him a snake instead? 12 Or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion? 13 If you then, though you are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in heaven give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!" (NIV)
How then may we move away from mechanical formulaic praying to a more natural way? Perhaps the first step is to recognize that there are many types of other than the verbal forms we are familiar with. These other forms includes the meditative, contemplative and unitive. Though different in forms, they are the same in essence as defined in 1 Chronicles 16:1:
1CH 16:11 Look to the LORD and his strength; seek his face always. (NIV)
Furthermore, instead of doing prayer, we need to seek to be pray-ers. What I meant is that for prayer to be natural, there need to be a foundational change in our beings. We must become S.T.O.R.K. prayers. A common cultural metaphor for the stork is that it delivers bundle of joy (baby). The S.T.O.R.K. acronym here describes a person who prays or is a pray-er who delivers joyful prayers to the Lord. It stands for:
·         Submission
·         Trust
·         Obedience
·         Right with God
·         Know God
Submission to the revealed will of God and acceptance of our role in His creation is a hallmark of a natural pray-er. It is in submission that we find true freedom and true contentment. We expand a lot of psychic energy rebelling against what we know is expected of us. Our intrinsic nature is a rebellious one. We want to have our own way. We want instant gratification. As long as we refuse to submit, we will find praying hard. Consciously or subconsciously, we know that we are not being honest in what we express to God. We are aware of our hidden agendas.
We must be willing to trust God. It is ludicrous that we trust human specialists such as specialist doctors to take care of our health, and financial planners, our wealth yet find it difficult to trust God with our whole being. We acknowledge God as the omniscience, omnipotent and omnipresence yet have our little ‘insurance policies’ in case God fails to deliver. If we are able to let go and allow God to take care of everything, yet faithfully doing our part, our prayers will become a natural part of our being.
To be faithfully doing our part as ‘co-creators’ in this present creation means that our lives should be a life of obedience to God’s revealed code of moral ethical living. Obedience means doing what Jesus taught us in the Great Commandment and the Great Commission. It is to loving God, others and ourselves. It is restoring the lost souls to the Kingdom of God. We should be helping to restore the fallen image of God in one another. It is to feed the hungry, comfort the suffering, defend the exploited, protect the widows and children, and stand together against the evil of the age.
Natural prayer comes from being ‘right with God’. It means that we should not be harboring known sins in our minds, hearts and souls. Sins have a way of poisoning the part and corrupting the whole. This is where confession and repentance comes in. We should let the Holy Spirit bring light to the darkest recesses of our beings. His light will drive out and remove these hidden sins.
Our God is a self-revealing God. Hence it is possible to know Him. It is often not enough to know Him cognitively. All the facts about God are never complete until we have met Him in a divine encounter. This experiential knowledge of God opens our physical and spiritual minds and hearts to the Great Mystery who is Three-yet-One. It also opens us to this God who is both immanent and transcendent, Who has been present and working tirelessly in our everyday life all the time. It is only because we are spiritually blinded that we do not see this.
S.T.O.R.K. prayers are people to whom praying is as natural as breathing. This is because they are already aware that they are already in communion with God, in whom all ‘things moves, and lives and have their being’. Prayer should be as natural as breathing and as equally as life giving.


Tuesday, August 13, 2013

The False Shalom

Wandering monkey mind,
fleeting flighty thoughts,
rapid shallow breathing,
racing stressed heartbeats,
ever restless moving body,
the ‘shalom’ of stress.

Mindfulness of the moment,
reflection of consciousness,
deep breaths of life,
slower drumbeats of mortality,
body still, relaxed at rest,
the shalom of eternity.

Why do we live with the false shalom?


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Sunday, October 23, 2011

The Unclean

The Unclean

There was a time when I was clean,
had family, friends, relatives and a man.
Sunshine, joy, happiness, life was serene,
vanished when my bleeding began but not end.

O God, Thou creator of worlds without end,
why do Thou decree that I suffer so?
By my body issue cause that my life rend,
did I offend Thee that Thou afflict such sorrow?

Thou decree that woman with menses be unclean,
temple ceremonially so but contaminable too.
But Thou did created woman to bleed in between,
weeping of a womb disappointment accrue.

My bleeding did not stop continually unclean I remain,
Social outcast fled family, friends, man I hold dear.
Seek physicians and priests my misfortune to unchain,
Not spared prayers, cash, effort that I become clear.

Twelve years of loneliness longing for a human touch,
O God, Thou compassionate merciful wherefore are Thou?
Twelve years of darkness only to Thee I clutch,
O Lord, Compassionate and Merciful One, heal Thou me now!

(Mark 5:24-34; Matthew 9:20-22; Luke 8:43-48)


Monday, June 20, 2011

Discernment at the Movies

Some thoughts on discernment in movie watching

The Great Christian Movie Confusion

Is it wrong for Christians to watch movies?
Movies are a narrative art form as much as literature, sculptures and paintings. It is the cultural milieu in which we live in. As Christians, we believe that we should enjoy God’s creation, even though it is not a perfect one. Culture is part of this creation and culture has much to teach us about ourselves and about God (often in a negative way).

Is it wrong for Christians to watch movies with witches, spells, magic and spirits?
Those who answer yes often think of the Harry Potter movies and the Golden Compass. However they will be willing to watch the Lord of the Ring trilogy and the Narnia series even though these movies have witches, spells, magic and spirits. Often they will be hard-pressed to explain why some movies are acceptable while others are not in the same genre.

Discernment in Watching Movies

To exercise discernment in watching movies, we need to ask ourselves three questions:
(1)   What is/are the message(s) of this movie?
(2)   What elements are used to convey the message?
(3)   Are there message(s) embedded in the elements?

Take for example, the Lord of the Rings trilogy and the Harry Potter movies.

The message of these movies are similar – friendship, loyalty, love, good over evil

The elements of these movies are similar – wizards, magic, spells, spirits

However, in the Harry Potter movies, the elements (wizards, magic, spells, spirit) also carries a message – that not all who practice witchcraft are bad, only those who practice the Dark Arts. Biblical teaching tells us that God forbids witchcraft (Deut. 18:10). Another way to understand elements in a movie is a car. If the hero jump into a car and drive from point A to point B, then it is just an element. If the hero jumped into an Austin Martin, then the element also sends a message. James Bond (007) drives an Austin Martin.

Message, Elements and Message-embedded-in-Elements

There were no movies in the Bible. People told stories that were perceived mental movies. The parables told by Jesus are examples of these mental movies. An example is the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30-37).

  LK 10:30 In reply Jesus said: "A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, when he fell into the hands of robbers. They stripped him of his clothes, beat him and went away, leaving him half dead. 31 A priest happened to be going down the same road, and when he saw the man, he passed by on the other side. 32 So too, a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. 33 But a Samaritan, as he traveled, came where the man was; and when he saw him, he took pity on him. 34 He went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he put the man on his own donkey, took him to an inn and took care of him. 35 The next day he took out two silver coins and gave them to the innkeeper. `Look after him,' he said, `and when I return, I will reimburse you for any extra expense you may have.'

    LK 10:36 "Which of these three do you think was a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of robbers?"

    LK 10:37 The expert in the law replied, "The one who had mercy on him."
    Jesus told him, "Go and do likewise."

Parable as movie
Message embedded in elements
Parable of the Good Samaritan
Love and help others
Drama, robbery, priest, Levite, merchant, Samaritan, violence, innkeeper
(people are not influenced to be Samaritans)


Message embedded in elements
Lord of the Rings trilogy
friendship, loyalty, love, good over evil
Adventure, wizards, magic, spells, spirits, violence
Harry Porter movies
friendship, loyalty, love, good over evil
Adventure, wizards, magic, spells, spirits, violence
Yes- some practitioners of witchcraft is good; there is a school for witchcraft
Narnia movies
friendship, loyalty, love, good over evil
Adventure, wizards, magic, spells, spirits, violence

Deut. 18: 9-14
DT 18:9 When you enter the land the LORD your God is giving you, do not learn to imitate the detestable ways of the nations there. 10 Let no one be found among you who sacrifices his son or daughter in the fire, who practices divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft, 11 or casts spells, or who is a medium or spiritist or who consults the dead. 12 Anyone who does these things is detestable to the LORD, and because of these detestable practices the LORD your God will drive out those nations before you. 13 You must be blameless before the LORD your God.

    DT 18:14 The nations you will dispossess listen to those who practice sorcery or divination. But as for you, the LORD your God has not permitted you to do so.

*      No human sacrifice
*      No practicing divination (any attempt to get guidance or foretell the future from any supernatural source other than God). This includes astrology and horoscopes.
*      No sorcery (using magic powers)
*      No interpreting omens
*      No engaging in witchcraft
*      No casting spells
*      No consulting or being a medium or spiritist (those who contact spirits and allow the spirits to communicate through them)
*      No trying to consult the dead

Paganism/ Neopaganism

A paraplegic marine dispatched to the moon Pandora on a unique mission becomes torn between following his orders and protecting the world he feels is his home
Protector of people and planet
Science fiction, Virtual world, special effects, violence
Yes-paganism, worship of Gaia
Capt. John Smith leads a rag-tag band of English sailors & soldiers to the New World to plunder its riches for England (or, more precisely, for Governor Ratcliffe, who comes along for the ride). Between Ratcliffe, who believes the "savages" are hiding the gold he expected to be plentiful, and Powhatan, who believes these pale newcomers will destroy their land, Smith and Pocahontas have a difficult time preventing all-out war, and saving their love for each other
Protection of land and people against exploitation
Cartoon, adventure, special effects
Yes-paganism, worship of Gaia
Star Wars
Action has consequences, power corrupts
Science fiction, special effects, galactic drama, violence
Yes, paganism. The Force
Matrix trilogy
Machine-man interface, next step in evolution
Science fiction, special effects, violence
Yes, paganism. Next stage in evolution, man-machine state of consciousness

Paganism (neo-paganism) celebrates the Earth, living creatures, nature, and so on. Most modern-day pagans believe in more than one god, while others are atheistic.

Paganism – What are some pagan systems and religions?
*      American pagans practice a variety of forms of traditions, but the most popular are Celtic, Greco-Roman, Native American, ancient Egyptian, and Norse.
*      Kabbalah: During the Middle Ages, this Jewish mystical and magical system developed.
*      Shamanism: This tradition is practiced by the Native American cultures. Drumming is the technique used, and in traditional societies, the shaman travels to the spirit realm to gain information regarding the community’s needs like healing or spiritual growth.
*      Egyptian: This is very popular today, and involves complex spiritual and magical systems centering on death and rebirth. It developed in ancient Egypt when priestesses and priests became known for their level of knowledge and skill in magical arts.
*      Druidism: The original Druids were priestesses and part of the judicial class of the ancient Celts.
*      Discordianism: This began as a Buddhist practice with the main idea being “existence is orderly chaos.” Meditative procedures, confusion and enlightenment, chaos and order, pain and pleasure are revealed as inseparable parts of a total vision of reality[1].

What do Pagans believe in?
 Pagans respect nature as divine. Although Paganism covers a wide spectrum of ideas, these elements sum up the beliefs of the majority.

The recognition of the divine in nature is at the heart of Pagan belief. Pagans are deeply aware of the natural world and see the power of the divine in the ongoing cycle of life and death. Most Pagans are eco-friendly, seeking to live in a way that minimises harm to the natural environment.

Concepts of the divine
Pagans worship the divine in many different forms, through feminine as well as masculine imagery and also as without gender. The most important and widely recognised of these are the God and Goddess (or pantheons of God and Goddesses) whose annual cycle of procreation, giving birth and dying defines the Pagan year. Paganism strongly emphasises equality of the sexes. Women play a prominent role in the modern Pagan movement, and Goddess worship features in most Pagan ceremonies.

Pagan theology
Paganism is not based on doctrine or liturgy. Many pagans believe 'if it harms none, do what you will'. Following this code, Pagan theology is based primarily on experience, with the aim of Pagan ritual being to make contact with the divine in the world that surrounds them.[2]

Deut. 5: 6-8
    DT 5:6 "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.

  DT 5:7 "You shall have no other gods before me.

  DT 5:8 "You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. 9 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, 10 but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments.


Season of the Witch
Power of the book of Solomon over demons (not the words of Solomon in the Bible)
Adventure, crusade, demons, monastery, plague, power of words
Yes- words of Solomon, not God’s.
John Constantine as a cynic with the ability to perceive and communicate with half-angels and half-demons in their true form. He seeks salvation from eternal damnation in Hell for a suicide attempt in his youth. Constantine exorcises demons back to Hell in a bid to earn favor with Heaven but has become weary over time. With death looming, he helps a troubled police detective learn the truth about her sister's death while simultaneously unraveling a much larger and darker plot.

Salvation, redemption

Horror, demons, angels, violence, hell
Yes- wrong theology of suicide, cannot earn flavour with God
The Exorcist
When a teenager is possessed by a mysterious entity, her mother seeks the help of two priests to save her daughter.
Horror, exorcism, demon possession
Yes – too much emphasis on the demonic


Saving Private Ryan
Following the Normandy Landings, a group of US soldiers go behind enemy lines to retrieve a paratrooper whose brothers have been killed in action.
Sacrifice, duty, loyalty, friendship
War, violence, body parts
Sacrifice, duty, loyalty, friendship
War, violence, body parts
Yes, graphic violence. Violence is honor
Resident Evil series
One person against large corporation
Horror, violence
Yes, glorification of violence

Christian themed movies

Chariot of Fire
Human effort versus divine empowerment
Biography, Racing, Olympics games
Amazing Grace
One man’s crusade
Biography, slavery, London, politics
Learning to love
Biography, Oxford,


Consequences of favouritism in parenting (father)
Drama, Norse mythology, gods, violence
True Grit
Actions has consequences
Drama, cowboy, bad language, violence,
Learning to love
Biography, Oxford,

Useful movie review links

Movie Guide

Ted Baehr is Founder and Publisher of MOVIEGUIDE®:  The Family Guide to Movies and Entertainment and Chairman of the Christian Film & Television Commission® ministry, as well as a noted critic, educator, lecturer, and media pundit. His life’s purpose is to be used of God to redeem the values of the media while educating audiences on how to use discernment in selecting their entertainment.

Movies reviews at Crosswalk

Anime movies

Christian Anime Sites

Christian Anime Alliance
Possibly the most readily identified Christian anime site on the Internet, CAA has many Christian-focused reviews of anime and manga.  It also has a very active forum.
Another well-known site, features a number of fanmade manga.  It also has a very active forum of believers.

Anime Angels
This site has been around for a number of years and contains art, reviews and articles published through the site’s magazine.  Users communicate primarily through an activity feed.

Let’s Love Japan
This amazing site’s goal is to reach out to the Japanese by creating a mobile website with animated stories and other tools.  Among their current projects is an anime about Jesus. 


To exercise discernment in watching movies, we need to ask ourselves three questions:
(1)   What is/are the message(s) of this movie?
(2)   What elements are used to convey the message?
(3)   Are there message(s) embedded in these elements?

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